PDF | Literary artists use language and the power of words to communicate messages to their The Trials of Brother Jero, and its major characters (Jero. PDF | Literary artists use language and the power of words to communicate messages to their audiences or readers. Satire provides these artists one such. Due to the fact that book The Trials Of Brother Jero And The Strong Breed. By Wole Soyinka, Wole. Soyinka has wonderful benefits to read, many individuals.
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Welcome to the English Conversation Class sponsored by the Church of Jesus Christ We teach Beginning English Conversat. Get this from a library! The trials of brother Jero. [Wole Soyinka]. The Trials of Brother Jero is a five- scene play* It shows Soyinka's genius in light hearted satirical comedy. The brief first scene of the play functions as a kind of.
If they do not, they are hardly in a position to complain to him that he was wrong. Jero does not really want to empower any of his congregation. In truth, he cares nothing for them. He likes to keep them dependent on him, so it is in his interests to keep them weak and unable to help themselves. He refuses to allow Chume to beat his wife, for example, because he thinks that would give Chume a sense of fulfillment and he would no longer look to Jero for guidance.
Jero likes others to think he is important, which is why he makes up all kinds of names for himself that he hopes the congregation will adopt, such as Immaculate Jero and Articulate Hero of Christ's Crusade. He likes to be distinctive, to stand out from the crowd. He has a very high opinion of himself, although he does acknowledge that he has a weakness for women.
Jero may be unscrupulous, but he is good at what he does. When Amope relentlessly comes after him for his money, he cunningly uses Chume to get the better of her. When Chume chases after Jero, believing that the preacher is having an affair with his wife, Jero soon turns the situation to his advantage, arranging for Chume to be sent to a lunatic asylum.
By the end of the play, Jero has attracted into his orbit the Member of Parliament, a far more influential figure than Chume. This suggests that Jero is about to move up in the world, at least in terms of the stature of the people he is able to manipulate and control.
Despite his many faults, Jero is an amusing character. His redeeming quality is that he is fully aware of what he is doing, does not fool himself, and openly confesses his cynicism and selfish motives to the audience. He goes to the beach to rehearse the fiery speeches he plans to give in Parliament, but he is too frightened actually to deliver them.
He is, at first, hostile to Jero, but Jero soon outwits him by playing on the man's ambition. He is so flattered when Jero tells him that he will become minister for war that he is then easily manipulated.
Jero convinces him that fervent prayer would advance his cause with God, and the man complies without hesitation. He thinks Jero is a real prophet and man of God. Jero, of course, plans only to use him for his own ends, but all the politician can think about is his future elevation to the rank of minister for war. Old Prophet Old Prophet is the preacher who acted as Jero's spiritual mentor.
With Jero's help, Old Prophet staked out a territory for himself on the beach. But then Jero betrayed him by driving him away from his patch. Furious, Old Prophet cursed him, declaring that women would be Jero's downfall. Jero pretends to take no notice of the curse, although in fact it worries him.
He has no respect for his former tutor, referring to him as a foolish "old dodderer. She lies on the ground moaning as Chume and the congregation pray for her. Tough Mamma The Tough Mamma is an angry woman who chases after the Boy Drummer, accusing him of using the drum to abuse her father. She is Jero's neighbor. Offstage, she gets the drums from the boy, leaving him to follow her onstage pleading for his drums back. The woman is aggressive. When Jero tries to intervene in the dispute, she scratches his face and he ends up with his clothes torn as well.
This incident takes place offstage, and the woman's role throughout is a non-speaking one. She is on her way to the market to sell fish. She and Amope exchange angry words. Amope appears to believe that the woman is trading in stolen property. Young Girl The Young Girl frequents the beach near the spot where Jero preaches, and he observes her.
When she goes to swim, he thinks she looks dirty, but when she returns she looks much more attractive. Jero observes the same transformation in the girl every day and tries to resist his lustful thoughts about her. Jero appears to have no genuine faith at all. Even though he prays for and with his congregation, he does not believe a word of what he tells others. Everything he says is to secure his own position and keep his followers in a subordinate place. He intuits that what people want is not spiritual knowledge but material advancement, and this is what he promises God will deliver for them.
A hypocrite is a person who preaches one thing but does another, and this is a perfect description of Jero. No doubt he speaks to his congregation about the need for honest and upright living, but he downloads a cloak from Amope and it appears he has no intention of paying for it. He is little more than a crook, always alert for new ways of impressing his gullible followers and keeping them within the fold, as can be seen by his musings about acquiring some grand title for himself that would make his congregation even more malleable in his hands.
Jero knows that he is a dreadful example of a preacher or prophet, which is the term he uses. Near the beginning of the play he quotes a proverb: "There are eggs and there are eggs. Same thing with prophets. Jero well knows that he is a fake, but he feels no twinge of conscience about it. Although his followers are not actually shown giving him money, they probably do, since Jero refers to them as "customers": "I always get that feeling every morning that I am a shopkeeper waiting for customers.
He is a fraud, but a clever one, and the audience is amused by his antics and his plots. Research the origin of stock types in the drama of ancient Greece and Rome and the sixteenth century Italian Commedia dell'Arte. What were the principle stock characters? How does Soyinka make these stock types into believable human beings? Make a class presentation in which you explain your findings. Pick one of Jero's speeches, possibly his opening speech in scene 3; rehearse it; and deliver it in front of the class.
There is no need to learn it by heart. Remember that Jero may be a rascal but he is an amusing one and audiences tend to like him. Try to bring out the humor in his words and attitudes. Imagine that Old Prophet returns to the beach and observes Jero's interaction with the Member of Parliament. Write a speech for Old Prophet in which he addresses the audience the other characters do not hear him.
In writing Old Prophet's speech, review his speeches from scene 1 and study his character. What do you think he would say after observing the chicanery of his former pupil?
One theme of the play is that society is too materialistic. Is this a criticism that could be made of American society? In what sense? Can a person have material ambitions and still lead a life of faith?
What are spiritual values? How might they contribute to a person's sense of well being? Write an essay in which you discuss these questions in terms of contemporary American society. Misogyny The play presents some misogyny, or negative attitudes toward women, on the part of the male characters, and the women themselves are portrayed as either aggressive or as chronic complainers.
Jero sets the tone. He worries about his weakness for women and sees them as temptresses who will lead him into trouble. He refers to them, following Old Prophet, as Daughters of Discord; he disparages Amope as a "daughter of Eve" Eve fell prey to the temptations of the serpent and then tempted Adam in the Garden of Eden ; and he mentions the Biblical characters Delilah and Jezebel: "How little women have changed since Eve, since Delilah, since Jezebel.
Her name has since come to symbolize a wicked woman. As for Chume's attitude toward women, he wants nothing more than to beat his wife. Amope is presented as a shrew, a woman who always thinks of herself as a martyr whether she has something to complain about or not, and she certainly makes Chume feel miserable with her taunts.
The angry woman who pursues the Boy Drummer and attacks Jero is another example of a negative portrayal of women. It is as if all the women are presented through the eyes of the men who fear them.
Materialism It is not only Jero who lacks spiritual values. No one else in the play has such values either.
The people in the congregation want more material goods and greater success in the world rather than any spiritual salvation. The play therefore satirizes the materialism of the culture.
This is amusingly presented in the incident in which Chume briefly takes over the service in Jero's absence. In his prayer he asks for God to give them all "money to have a happy home. Those who dey sweep street today, give them their own big office tomorrow. If we dey walk a today, give us our own bicycle tomorrow….
Those who have bicycle today, they will ride their own car tomorrow. Satire pokes clever fun at the failings of humanity; a satiric comedy, according to M. Abrams in A Glossary of Literary Terms, "ridicules political policies or philosophical doctrines, or else attacks the disorders of society by making ridiculous the violators of its standards of morals or manners.
This does not lessen the satirical point the dramatist wishes to convey. Farce is a form of comedy in which stock characters are put in exaggerated situations with the intention of eliciting laughter. The humor is often coarse and physical. In this play, there are farcical elements in scene 3, when the angry woman chases the Boy Drummer across the stage, and the two of them keep reappearing while the bewildered Chume takes over the religious service and the Penitent starts writhing around on the ground.
Other farcical moments happen when Chume grabs Amope and tries to put her on the bicycle scene 4 , and when Chume chases Jero across the stage, brandishing a cutlass scene 5. Pidgin English When Chume gets emotionally excited or involved, his speech lapses into what is called pidgin English. Pidgin English is a combination of English with a local language. In Nigeria, the languages combined with English are mainly Hausa, Yoruba, and Igbo, and several million people speak different forms of pidgin English.
A good example comes in scene 5, when Chume finally realizes that Jero is a hypocrite and even thinks that the preacher is having an affair with Amope: O God, my life done spoil.
My life done spoil finish. O God a no' get eyes for my head. Na lie. Na big lie. Na pretence 'e de pretend that wicked woman! She no' go collect nutin! She no' mean to sleep for outside house. The Prophet na 'in lover. Jero has a contemptuous attitude to Chume's pidgin English, which he calls "animal jabber" and sees as a sign of Chume's inferiority. During the decade, tensions develop between Muslim and Christian groups. Today: In a trend that is shared in Africa as a whole, the two major religions, Islam and Christianity, continue to grow in Nigeria.
Muslims account for 50 percent of the population, Christians constitute 40 percent, and adherents of indigenous religions account for 10 percent. Christians are concentrated in southeastern Nigeria; Muslims dominate in the north. However, the new nation does not achieve political stability and, in , there is a military coup, followed in by a civil war.
Today: Nigeria has a civilian government and is enjoying the longest period of civilian rule since independence. Ethnic and religious tensions remain.
Today: Nigeria continues to produce writers working in English who are making an impact on world literature. It can be said to have begun with the publication of Amos Tutuola 's The Palm-Wine Drinkard in , which was a telling of Yoruba folktales in an unorthodox English style.
Like Soyinka, Tutuola came from the Yoruba area in western Nigeria. His second book, My Life in the Bush of Ghosts, was published in Chinua Achebe 's novel, Things Fall Apart , achieved international recognition.
In drama, the work of the physician and playwright James Ene Henshaw marked a significant beginning. Henshaw's plays dealt with important issues in Nigerian social and political life in the s and s. His first play, This Is Our Chance , was highly popular, and he wrote many more successful plays, including Jewels of the Shrine , Children of the Goddess , Magic in the Blood , Medicine for Love , and Dinner for Promotion In the s, Soyinka emerged as the dominant figure in Nigerian drama, but other playwrights also made significant contributions to the emerging literary culture.
Baptists established missions there. These early Christian churches ignored African traditions and used European forms of worship and practice; therefore, Africans did not fully embrace these churches as their own. In the second decade of the twentieth century, as a result of African dissatisfaction with the European-centered mission churches, a Pentecostal movement spread through western portions of Nigeria, incorporating more indigenous African beliefs and practices.
These spiritualist, Pentecostal churches flourished in western Nigeria during the s, and they are the main targets of Soyinka's satire in The Trials of Brother Jero.
These churches are known in Nigeria as Aladura, a Yoruba word that means "praying people. Aladura churches are sometimes known as "white garment" churches because of the way their preachers dress. The "white flowing gown" that Jero wears clearly identifies him as an Aladura preacher. The second of these, the Eternal Sacred Order of Cherubim and Seraphim, is actually named in the first scene of the play as one of the many churches jostling for space on the beach.
Founded in Lagos, Nigeria, in as a prayer group within the Anglican church, the sect became an independent church in and soon made a name for itself by crusading against witches. It also underwent many schisms, and by the s there were ten different divisions of the church. In his review of this production, the drama critic for the London Times comments that Soyinka "appears as an extremely sophisticated craftsman working within a rich folk tradition.
In this essay, he examines the archetypal characters in The Trials of Brother Jero and also discusses Soyinka's development of the title character in his later play, Jero's Metamorphosis. In order to accomplish his satirical goals in The Trials of Brother Jero, Soyinka drew on a long tradition in literature and later in film of the lovable rogue, the character who repeatedly cheats and schemes to his own advantage but does so with wit, verve, and often such great charm that the reader or audience cannot help but find him amusing and may even admire him, even if they cannot admire what he actually does.
Shakespeare's character Autolycus, the peddler in The Winter's Tale, comes from the same tradition. Soyinka was therefore not working in a vacuum when he created one of his most popular characters to make his satirical points: the hypocrisy of the preachers who plied their trade on the Bar Beach in Lagos and the superficiality of the culture that produced their followers, who identified their life goals solely in terms of the accumulation of material rewards and social position.
They get the preacher their shallow minds deserve. It has been praised by reviewers as one of the finest memoirs of childhood ever written. The play is a satire on religious hypocrisy, centering around the confidence trickster, Tartuffe. West African Trickster Tales , adapted by Martin Bennett, is a collection of thirteen trickster tales, retold in a modern, Western setting. The collection will be of interest to readers of The Trials of Brother Jero since a number of commentators have noted similarities between Jero and the tricksters of these tales, such as Ananse the Spider and the Tortoise.
Elmer Gantry , a novel by Sinclair Lewis , is an entertaining satire on Protestant fundamentalist religion in the American Midwest. Elmer Gantry is a successful but corrupt and hypocritical preacher who denounces vice in others but shows little inclination to reform his own immoral behavior. The novel caused a sensation when first published and was banned in several cities. It still makes for lively reading in the early twenty-first century. Brother Jero stands high in the pantheon of lovable rogues.
He manipulates his followers shamelessly and appears not to have an ounce of integrity. He would no doubt regard integrity as an impediment to good business. He is a very suave operator who has his act down completely: his imposing appearance with his heavy beard, the sleek white gown with the white velvet cape that he still has not paid for, the divine rod that further marks out his authority as a man of God, and his lofty way of speaking, complete with all the usual flourishes of the silver-tongued preacher.
His words beguile his congregation. Brother Jero is a master manipulator and he clearly knows it; he is much smarter, and, when he has to be, more ruthless, than not only the other preachers he outwitted in order to secure his beach territory, but also his simple followers, such as Chume, who have no idea that they are being played for fools.
Poor Chume is the archetypal dupe who cannot get the better of the charlatan even when he finally realizes the truth about him. Chume is an easy victim of the man who took the measure of him a long time ago and who well knows his own superior cunning. The hold the preacher has over his assistant, and the meaninglessness of the charade he calls a religious service is shown clearly in scene 3, when Jero gets Chume to pray with him against his one weakness, which is for women. Jero calls on the names of various figures in Christian tradition, including Abraham, David, Samuel, Elijah, and even Adam.
Indeed, Abraka is close in sound to the cry of the stage magician, "Abracadabra" sometimes spelled Abrakadabra as he is about to perform some piece of entertaining trickery in front of an audience, which is close to what Jero is doing here—putting on a show of piety for the benefit of his witless disciple, who is so caught up in the emotionalism of the situation that he has no rational power to question the appropriateness of the incantation.
If Jero is the lovable rogue and Chume his perpetual dupe, the other main character, Amope, is the archetypal shrew. Like the lovable rogue, the stock character of the shrew has a long history in literature. Shakespeare's Katharina in The Taming of the Shrew is perhaps the most famous.
The shrew is easy to spot; she is the character who is perpetually nagging her husband, showering him with verbal abuse. Sometimes the husband meekly knuckles under; sometimes he rebels and finally shows the troublesome lady who is the boss. Chume would dearly love to take the latter course, but the truth of the matter is that, in what is no doubt a long and unhappy relationship, Amope is the stronger personality and dominates her hapless husband whatever he might do to challenge her.
Long skilled at playing the martyr, she accuses him of abusing her if he offers her even the mildest of rebukes. Nothing he does makes any difference to this situation, which is why he entertains fantasies of giving her a beating.
When Jero gives him the go-ahead to teach her a lesson, he starts to assert himself like he never has before: "Shut your big mouth! After she protests and he puts her down, he raises a clenched fist, telling her once more to keep silent. Amope appears to be at his mercy, but in fact the quick-witted woman soon finds a way of regaining the upper hand, repeatedly telling him to kill her, even as a crowd gathers to watch. She is still playing the martyr, and her gamble that he will in fact do nothing seems a fairly safe one.
The audience gets the feeling that Chume, whatever he does, will never get the satisfaction of breaking his wife's spirit by physical force. This is one shrew who, unlike Shakespeare's Katharina, will not be tamed. The Trials of Brother Jero proves to be one of Soyinka's most popular and frequently performed plays.
As a light satire, it produces more fun and laughter than serious thought, and Soyinka liked his charlatan of a hero enough to bring him back in a later play, Jero's Metamorphosis first produced in Lagos in However, the tone of the later play presents a stark contrast to that of the earlier one.
Much had happened in Nigeria in the intervening twelve years. The hopes of the newly independent nation had not been fulfilled and, in , there were several military coups.
The following year, civil war broke out when Biafra, the eastern region of the country, declared its independence from Nigeria. The civil war ended in , but during the s the country remained under repressive military rule. Bar Beach, Lagos, the scene of Jero's petty chicanery, was used for public executions.
Soyinka was imprisoned for over two years during the civil war, and when he turned his creative attention back to Brother Jero, his vision had darkened.
The earlier play ended with Jero pulling into his fold the ambitious but timid Member of Parliament, who wants to become minister for war, thus suggesting that the preacher is about to widen his sphere of influence into the political realm. Jero's Metamorphosis takes up this hint of an alliance between religious quackery and the political rulers to present a bitter satire with Jero at its center.
In his office, Jero displays a portrait of the country's military ruler, so the changed conditions under wich the country is operating are clear at the outset. The plot centers around the plan of the authorities to evict the rag-tag group of preachers from the beach and develop it for tourism.
They also have plans to build a large stadium on the beach where they would hold public executions. Part of the plan involves issuing a license to just one religious group to operate on the beach.
The role of the favored church would be to say prayers before and after the executions and give sermons to the crowds pointing out that perpetrators of crime will meet with a bad end. Jero fears that the Salvation Army is about to be appointed as the state-approved sect, so he gathers all the preachers together and announces he is forming a new church in the image of the country's military rulers. Everyone is given a military title, including Chume, who, it turns out, spent only three months in the lunatic asylum and was soon won back into Jero's fold by the preacher's promise of rapid promotion.
Chume is immediately appointed a brigadier in the new church, and Jero persuades the head of the Tourist Board to grant them their desired spiritual monopoly on the beach. Jero thus sets himself up as the spiritual wing of the ruling military junta, creating an ugly alliance between religion and the repressive rulers of the state that has the people at its mercy. Jero has grown from petty con man to a state-sanctioned leader of a militarized church that does the bidding of a regime that executes its enemies in public as a form of mass entertainment.
For Jero, this represents progress, but for Nigeria, Soyinka suggests, it represents the opposite. Alan Jacobs In the following excerpt, Jacobs provides an overview of Soyinka's life and oeuvre, including The Trials of Brother Jero, and emphasizes the playwright's significance to contemporary literature.
I can hear the capital letters in the voices of those who ask. These names are usually greeted by puzzlement, for, though both have won the Nobel Prize for Literature—Milosz in and Soyinka in —and both have been on The McNeil-Lehrer Newshour, neither has entered the American public consciousness in a potent way. Milosz is more likely to be familiar, though, and apparently my interlocutors think him a more plausible choice; my claim for Soyinka almost always earns skeptical looks.
I imagine that this skepticism derives from the still-common picture of Africa as the dark continent, full of illiterate savages a picture that the Western media do little to dispel ; and also from the suspicion that any African Nobel laureate must be the beneficiary of multicultural affirmative action.
But if anything, Soyinka is a more comprehensive genius even than Milosz. Here is a writer of spectacular literary gifts; he is an acclaimed lyric and satirical poet, a brilliant novelist of ideas, a memoirist both nostalgic and harrowing, and almost certainly the greatest religious dramatist of our time.
The assumption that he has come to our attention only because of academic politics is profoundly unjust—though perhaps understandable, considering the number of mediocre talents who have assumed recent prominence for just such reasons. That assumption also carries a heavy load of irony, given the distance between the triviality of American academic politics—what Henry Louis Gates, Jr.
Indeed Jero himself confesses early on that he faces many trials from women, including lascivious temptations. Brother Jero is presented as a tarnished man, cunning and resourceful Hence we see him exactly the way he is - "a man of God" trying to survive in a world fraught with sundry challenges. His creator Soyinka unleashes and unravels a gamut of wry situations and comments, and one can imagine the young Soyinka chuckling aloud!
Like he must have done when creating another early superb play, The lion and the jewel. Apart from the touch of comic around Jero, there is also the patina of rascality At the end of the play, Brother Jero gets his way and even somewhat moves up notches, spiritually! One is surely amass wealth from a small bound to think that with this pride, his congregation that foolishly over- ultimate goal is honor and that with depends on him for divine providence. His entire life is prosperity, he utterly leads the lowest a miserably futile journey in search of Chume, the office messenger to the honor, an end that Aristotle does not highest in the society-the Member of regard as happiness since honor is not Parliament, to a vain hope of a better an end in itself but something sought so future.
His true flaws are finally that one can be happy. To him, there dismay, the self proclaimed prophet is are eggs and there are eggs! Soyinka, merely an Adulterer! Woman- thief , p. The main cast deal and others are just armatures.
He include: brother Jero, Chume, Amope, refers to Chume, his most loyal disciple Drummer boy, the trader, the Old as … too crude Soyinka, , p. For such a vice, Aristotle bid to be wealthy- a status he believes would regard Jero a fool and prescribe will make him happy.
This pleasurable high mindedness as the golden mean. Aristotle submits, for as mindedness because his pride is it is not one swallow or one fine day colossal, making it even harder for him that makes a spring, so it is not one day to be happy. He feels he Ethics, a You must admit that be happy. However, his actions are am rather good looking Soyinka, Through his fake prophecies, he has , p.
While a low self-esteem is managed to capture a few ignorant deficient, a self conceited pride is an people whom he feeds with one lie after excess and Jero conveniently misses the another. He takes pleasure in keeping mark which is self-control.
Like Jero, them dissatisfied unhappy because many people struggle with self pride- satisfaction happiness as he claims the. Indeed, Aristotle minimizes others and considers them contends that, that which is always as lesser extensions of human beings. Ethics, a , is happiness. Jero is also a manipulative He knows that if Chume beats Amope shameless thief who has turned religion he will be happy and will not need him. His main skill is in duping and uses their ambitions for his own others and amassing wealth.
He gain. He audaciously confesses, proclaims: … was born a natural prophet. And grew to love the trade , This one here who always comes earliest, I have prophesied that he will be made a the word trade Mireku Chief in his hometown. That is a very safe suggests, becomes indistinct given it prophecy. As safe as our most popular could connote the prophet hood, prophecy, that a man will live to be ordinarily, or a money-making business eighty. So everybody is quite happy. One of consciousness. The church is his market my most faithful adherents, and the worshippers- the customers.
He unfortunately, he can only be present at confesses, am glad got here before weekends — firmly believes that he is any customers- I mean worshippers- going to be the first Prime Minister of the well, customers if you like. I always get new Mid-North-East State when it is created. That was a risky prophecy of that feeling every morning that I am a mine, but I badly needed more shop-keeper waiting for customers worshippers at that time.
He looks at his Soyinka, , p. He fully watch. The next one to arrive is my most understands their flaws and gullibility faithful penitent. She wants children, so yet he exploits them to exhaustion in a she is quite a sad case. Or you would think so… Soyinka, , p.
Ambition is not points as far as happiness is concerned. Only then can find out until he is on the other side. So one attain happiness. Secondly, he admits that Chume confronts him with the truth. It is a pity about Chume …. With the influence creditor whose debt he has failed to of that nincompoop, I should succeed in pay?
Thirdly, there is a varied certifying him with ease. A year in the understanding of the concept of lunatic asylum will do him good happiness. The thinks political status is a true end to police will call on me as soon as they catch Chume.
And it looks as if it is not happiness, the barren woman believes quite time for the fulfillment of that that having a child will bring happiness. According to not deserve to take advantage of good Aristotle, happiness [is] an activity of innocent people in the society.
Soyinka the soul in accordance with virtue brusquely satirizes the likes of Jero in Nicomachean Ethics, a Such are the traits of virtuous about hurting others, much unhappy people whose lives are utterly less rejoicing in the same. When at the empty. After grabbing land Jero is not a happy man and all his from the old prophet and sending him attempts to attain happiness seem futile away unceremoniously, he ambitiously as he is going about it the wrong way.
He is utterly daylight should be so frightened by a devoid of any sympathy for Chume woman. Jero, the self proclaimed hero whose predicament at the hands of a stoops so low as to escape his own tyrannical nagging wife he fully house through the window at the scare understands.
He sadistically prides in of Amope, a tyrannical woman, who is keeping his congregators dissatisfied determined to settle the scores. Jero must consequently, it can be ascertained that strive to hit the mark which is courage- Jero will never find happiness unless he courage to confess that he is not a true behaves well.
It is only through this that adherent. Yet even his religious he can lead a truly happy life. It can commitment does not suffice to bring therefore be said that Jero is his own him happiness. To him, happiness can obstacle to happiness.
He is the attains the golden mean, they are one we most empathize with because regarded as good people in the society.